Classic cars, defined by the human hand

Scale Plans Series No. 10 | Model Car & Track June 1965 | By Julian Thompson

Ferguson P99

ONE of the most interesting cars to emerge during the 1½ litre Formula 1 period was undoubtedly the 4 wheel drive Ferguson. This machine is outstanding, not only for its highly ingenious drive system, but also because at a time when all Grand Prix contestants were building rear engined cars the Ferguson's 4 cylinder Coventry Climax unit was mounted in front of the driver.

With 4 wheel drive it was more advantageous to have equal weight distribution on all wheels, rather than the bias to the rear, which is desirable with a 2 wheel drive car. Modernists may therefore regard the P.99 as old fashioned in appearance, but it is in fact a new conception of a racing car in possibly everything but the engine. The project can be considered as having been commenced way back in 1939 when Engine location and the necessary, complex drive train dictated an offset cockpit. Note shift lever mounted on firewall to left of steering wheel.

A.P.R.Rolt and the late Freddy Dixon — one of Britain's foremost racing drivers and tuning experts of pre World War II days — combined to do research on 4 wheel drive. After the war this was expanded and financed by Harry Ferguson, the tractor "king" head of Harry Ferguson Research, Ltd. Investigations and experiments over the years gradually amassed sufficient information and ability to enable the building of a Grand Prix car to become a possibility. This was undertaken during the winter of 1960/61, and in less than twelve months from the first drawings, the Ferguson 4 wheel drive racing car won its first race, only the third in which it had competed. In itself this was a considerable achievement, because although there have been many 4 wheel drive cars before the Ferguson it was the first with this form of transmission to win a race on a road circuit. On July 8th, 1961, the car made its first public appearance at Silverstone in the British Empire Trophy race, but unfortunately was eliminated by a mechanical fault in the early, stages so that a true assessment of its potential could not be made on that occasion. Incidentally, a 2½ litre Coventry Climax engine was fitted for this event to comply with the Intercontinental Formula under which the British Empire Trophy was run. A week later, on July 15th, the car was rolled out from the paddock at Aintree to compete in the 14th R.A.C. British Grand Prix, and on this occasion it was fitted with a 1½ litre formula 1 engine.

The many thousands of spectators who watched the event did so under astrocious weather conditions that prevailed that day — the Aintree circuit being lashed by driving rain throughout the greater part of the race. Although the Ferguson, driven by Jack Fairman, could not approach the performances of the victorious Ferraris, the conditions on the streaming track served to provide a surface upon which the car was able to conclusively demonstrate its remarkable steadiness and roadholding qualities. At Tatts Corner these were very evident. The machine negotiated this notorious turn lap after lap at speed without any apparent tendency of the tail to break away on the greasy, treacherous right hander. The use of an ingenious form of "limited slip" differential between the front and rear wheels enabled the Ferguson to achieve fantastic acceleration out of the corners, and this combined with its previously mentioned steadiness certainly denoted the considerable possibilities contained in its design.

Later in the season it proved itself by comfortably winning the Oulton Park Gold Cup race, during which event it was impecably driven by Stirling Moss. It was designed primarily as a research vehicle to enable Ferguson to carry out tests on stability, braking and so on, at high speeds. Consequently the P.99 was only raced where suitable to justify the claims of 4 wheel drive and prove the results of many years of experimental work. Many enthusiasts were disappointed that the car did not have a longer racing career, but it was never meant for a full Grand Prix programme — it was a technical exercise to prove its point.

Unique features of the Ferguson lie in the transmission and the inboard disc brakes fitted with a centrally located Dunlop Maxaret anti locking device. For braking, a tandem master cylinder was used that, in the event of failure in either the front or rear systems, the brakes on one axle continue to operate. The limited action differential allowed for effective braking on either the front or rear pair of discs on all four wheels, should such a failure occur, although the pedal effort would necessarily have to be increased for the same retarding effect. The ingenious anti locking system is worked by hydraulic pressure from a pump and accumulator. Pressure being utilised to apply the pads, and anti lock units, which include a small flywheel, are used to prevent locking. The flywheels, normally driven by the wheels, are so arranged that any undue check on their speed, which would occur when a wheel begins to lock, immediately relieves the hydraulic pressure and permits fluid to escape and return to the supply tank. Maxaret, established in aircraft practice, was a practical impossibility for racing cars so long as a unit had to be fitted to each wheel, but in the Ferguson, because of the presence of the limited-action differential in the transmission, a single unit only is needed for the whole system, as no one wheel can lock indpendently.

The controlled differential is one of the key features of the P.99. To the back of the engine the casing for the multi-dryplate clutch and offset gearbox is bolted. The drive is stepped down vertically to the gearbox through the Ferguson limited differential within the latter to all four wheels via open propeller shafts — final drive units being mounted in the multi-tube space frame. The all-around independent suspension incorporated on the car employs inclined coil springs and Armstrong dampers; the wheels being located by tubular wishbones of unequal length. Main driving and braking thrusts are taken on the lower wishbones and these are on the same centre line and of the same length as the universally jointed drive shafts so that sliding joints are not required.

Light-alloy Dunlop wheels with centre lock hub caps are fitted and designed for quick removal with a ring spanner; the hubs are fully rotating so that breakage of a half-shaft will not result in the loss of a wheel.

A light-alloy fuel tank with a capacity of fourteen gallons is positioned in the bulbous tail of the car, and a second of twelve gallon capacity is a Marston-Excelsior flexible plastic tank situated between the body shell and the frame, alongside the driver who sits slightly to the right of centre.

Following the P.99's appearances in various races it has competed successfully in hillclimbs, and in 1964 won the British R.A.C. championship in the hands of Peter Westbury. Also during '64 the same driver demonstrated its amazing acceleration at various meetings staged in different parts of England for the First British International Drag Festival.

It is possible that 4 wheel drive, more than any development during the past decade, could change the face of Grand Prix racing. BRM have, for some months, been carrying out experiments using the Ferguson principle and have produced a 4 wheel drive prototype — not as a prospective challenger in the 1½ litre formula, but as a mobile test bed for the purpose of trying out ideas for the forthcoming 3-litre, or 1½ litre supercharged formula that is due to commence in 1966.

For the 1964 Indianapolis 500 Mile Race the Ferguson principle was also utilised in a car known as the Studebaker S.T.P. Special — the whole project being completed in under four months. This Indy Novi-Ferguson, as it was alternatively known, showed considerable promise and qualified for the event at a speed of 154.504 m.p.h. driven by R. Unser. Unfortunately the disastrous accident that occurred in the opening laps of the race eliminated the car and the possible advantages of 4-wheel-drive at the world famous Speedway still remain to be proved.

The Ferguson P.99, depicted in the accompanying photographs as it appeared at Aintree and Oulton Park in 1961, was finished in an attractive shade of dark blue, with a white band round the nose. These are the well known Scottish racing colours adopted by Mr. R. R. C. Walker, head of the racing team which bears his name, and who co-operated with Harry Ferguson Research Ltd., in the team management of the car in its early days.

It cannot be regarded as a handsome vehicle. The various bonnet bulges housing camshaft covers and carburetors are essential, but detract from an otherwise smooth outline. However, the car does possess an individual, definite character, and with its considerably exposed suspension detail provides intriguing constructional problems in the smaller scales.

ESSENTIAL PROTOTYPE DIMENSIONS: Wheelbase: 7 ft. 6 in. Track: front 4 ft. 4 in. rear 4 ft. 2 in. Overall length: 12 ft. 6 in. Height to scuttle: 2 ft. 6 in. Ground Clearance: 4½ in. Wheels and tyres: 5.00 x 16 front and rear.

Model Car and Track

Ferguson P99

Ferguson P99 technical drawings Ferguson P99 technical drawings

Prototype Parade No. 39 | Model Maker June 1952 | Drawn by Maurice Brett & Described by G.H. Deason

4½L Ferrari GP

RACING enthusiasts will doubtless remember that Ferrari first came before the public eye as a marque in its own right when the very fast and light, short wheelbase 1½ litre car, fitted with a super-charger, was seen in Grands Prix as the principal antagonist of the Maseratis, at a time when the Alfa Romeo had made a temporary withdrawal from the lists in Formula I events. A car of this type was seen at Silverstone in 1949, running under the name of the Thinwall Special, then driven by Raymond Mays for its sponsor, C. A. Vandervell, of bearing fame.

At this time the Ferrari concern at Modena were not only engaged in the racing game, but were making a bid in the high performance sports car market with a series of sports models based on their racing machines, the high note of the range being the Ferrari "America", a two-seater of 4.1 litres which, when announced, claimed a higher performance than Britain's pride and joy, the XK 120 Jaguar, which ranked as the fastest production sports car in the world by virtue of its runs at Jabbeke. The "America" was, and is, a magnificent performer, and it was not, therefore, so very surprising that in 1950 Ferrari was seen to have deserted the highly stressed blown 1 litre category, and appeared with new cars of 4½ litres capacity, running unblown. The cars still retained the V-12 cylinder layout of the smaller blown jobs, with one camshaft to each bank, fitted into chassis longer than the smaller cars, but still commendably short and handy.

From the point of view of the racing designer the large unsupercharged type had much to commend it, both on the score of reliability and fuel consumption, which was proving such a vital factor that the virtually obsolescent Talbots were still able to compete with some degree of success in first-line racing, despite a basically "sports car" engine. Nevertheless, the immediate success of the new Ferraris must have come as a considerable surprise, not least to Alfa Romeo, up to that time practically unbeatable.

The chassis of the Ferrari is tubular, having an oval section which tapers towards the rear, as does the frame in plan. Much-lightened channel-section cross-members are used, and the rear of the frame is extended well behind the axle shafts, under which it passes, to form a support for the fuel tank. The rear axle is of De Dion type with transverse leaf springing, and two tubular radius rods are fitted on each side, terminating above and below the hubs, and pivoting on special brackets attached to the frame. The front suspension is by transverse leaf spring and wishbones, the spring passing below the front cross member.

The big V-12 cylinder engine, as might be expected, entirely fills the bonnet, and the positioning, of the triple Weber carburetters between the cylinder banks makes it necessary to house the air intakes in a tunnel which is in turn housed in the long air scoop on the bonnet top. The latest cars have dual sparking plugs, the magneto for which is of aircraft type, mounted at the front of the engine. The radiator element is set low down in front of the front cross-member, and the steering column passes on the offside of the engine at an angle, there being a universal joint behind the steering box. Six-branch exhaust manifolds sweep down to single tail pipes on either side below the body.

A four speed gearbox is in one unit with the rear axle casing, which is of the double reduction type. and the gear lever is carried in a visible gate on the left of the cockpit. Brakes are hydraulic, with two leading shoe action, and the brake drums are distinctive in having wide ventilating "spokes" which are visible through the wire wheels. The backs of the back plates are perforated and have gauze mesh covering the ventilator holes.

The engine itself is finely finished, with wide cam-shaft covers with cast-in tunnels for the high tension leads to the plugs.

Externally the car looks more purposeful than beautiful, probably due to its long wide "snout" with the unmistakable Ferrari "egg-box" grille, and the rather heavy-looking tail, which, however, serves to enhance the car's chances of victory due to its fuel carrying capacity. Air scoops on the scuttle sides and a hinged ventilator flap on the scuttle top serve the cockpit, and a filler cap on the top of the tail hinges forward. The rear view mirrors are streamlined by semi circular fairings, and shallow fairings also cover the front ends of the radius rods.

Twenty four extractor type louvres are cut in each side of the lower edge of the engine covers, eleven similar ones appear on each side of the body below the scuttle, and single slots face forward in the tail behind the rear edges of the back wheels. In some cases the cars have appeared with flat aero screens hinged on side brackets, while at others have appeared with fixed screens of curved pattern.

The new cars were an immediate success in Formula 1, and although the 1951 version had modified cylinder heads, 24 plugs and modified braking, it was with the older 12-plug version that Froilan Gonzalez gained his magnificent victory at Silverstone in the British Grand Prix in July, 1951, being the first driver to lap the Northants circuit at over 100 m.p.h., a feat he achieved during official practice. By sheer brilliance of driving he defeated both the official Alfa Romeo team and his own team mates Villoresi and Ascari, who were driving cars of the newer type, which during the season scored a number of victories over Alfa Romeo, notably at Nurburg, San Remo and Monza. The new models were by this time developing some 370 b.h.p., against the 400-plus of the Type 159 Alfas, which, however, was not always fully usable except on the fastest courses.

Model Maker

4½L Ferrari GP

Ferrari 4.5litre GP technical drawings
Model Maker

Ferrari 553

Hawthorn, Barcelona

Ferrari 553 plan drawings

Maglioli, Monza

Ferrari 553 plan drawings

Ferrari 555

Farina, Spa

Ferrari 555 plan drawings

Castellotti, Monza

Ferrari 555 plan drawings

Gendebien, Buenos Aries

Ferrari 555 plan drawings

Scale Plan Series #1 | Model Car & Track January 1964 | By Jonathan Thompson

Ferrari 553/555

In spite of a rather checkered career, the Type 553/555 Squalo and Supersqualo Ferrari Formula 1 cars of 1953-56 were extremely interesting machines with a special character all their own. The unorthodox body lines are ideal for the scale modeller looking for something different; prompting our choice, of the design to kick off our scale plan series.

While no existing slot-racing shell can be easily adapted to produce a Squalo, enterprising builders should be able to come up with handsome replicas of the real thing with the help of these plans, which include the several different versions that appeared over a two and one half year span. The wide body resulting from the side tanks will be a boon, to those with space problems, although the short wheelbase, is a limiting factor. Historical background of the, intriguing cars follows below.

The appearance of two new squat Ferraris at the Italian Grand Prix on September 13, 1953 suggested that the Marinello engineer Aurelio Lampredi had got off to a head start on the 1954 Formula. Designated 553 and nicknamed Squalo (Shark), the cars employed a new four cylinder engine (bore and stroke temporarily 93 x 73.5mm to give a displacement of 1998cc for the 1953 Formula 2) which produced 190 b.h.p. at 7200 r.p.m., and a new space frame of small diameter tubing. Wheelbase was only 82.5 inches.

The most obvious characteristics of the 553 were the wide bulges on the body sides, housing fuel tanks, and the high exhaust position resulting from the full contours. Driven in the race by Umberto Maglioli and Piero Carini after practice times were found disappointing, the cars earned $11,500 prize for the entry of two prototypes and a further $16.000 for the first new design to finish (Maglioli's eighth place). Carini retired. Although the initial performance was mediocre, it was expected that normal development would make the cars extremely competitive in 1954. However, the design continued to give trouble, particularly with respect to handling qualities. The concentration of weight within the wheelbase promised good road holding (theoretically, at least), but it was soon found that the characteristics were too sudden and unpredictable for most drivers, Dr. Giuseppe Farina in particular expressing his dislike.

The car was a real handful on slow, winding courses. The first entry in 1954 was at Syracuse on April 2. In 2½ litre form, the engines had 100 x 78mm bore and stroke. giving 2488cc and about 240 b.h.p. initially. (Later, output reached 270 b.h.p. at 7200 r.p.m.. although this engine speed proved disastrously unrealistic.) Farina tried one car in practice, but preferred to race the older Ferrari (a development of the Type 500 /2 known the 625), while Froilan Gonzalez, whose driving style was less polished but more enthusiastic, drove a Squalo. Unfortunately, he was involved in an accident early in the race, so results were inconclusive. The Argentine driver took one Squalo to the International Trophy Race at Silverstone on May 15. Gonzalez won the first heat with ease in the pouring rain, but a seized engine just before the final prevented a likely victory.

For the Belgian Grand Prix at Spa on June 20 the cars looked very competitive, being better suited for the high speed courses. Farina and Gonzalez achieved front row starting positions; Maurice Trintignant practiced in a third car which was not run. Reliability was again a negative factor, for both drivers had to retire, although Farina had held the lead from Fangio while the car was still running.

The French Grand Prix at Reims on July 4 saw the cars overshadowed by the new W 196 Mercedes-Benz. Two Squalos, in the hands of Mike Hawthorn and Gonzalez gave the German cars their only real opposition, but this was brief as both Ferraris retired in very explosive fashion. Hawthorn's engine blew up on the tenth lap and Gonzalez' car suffered an oil pipe fracture which resulted in a near fire and a wild spin. By this time the Squalo was lacking in both handling and speed, and although entries were made at Rouen (July 11, Gonzalez) and Pescara (August 15, Maglioli in practice only) and for the Swiss Grand Prix at Bern (August 22, cars driven in practice by Gonzalez, Farina, Maglioli, and Robert Manzon). Maglioli's seventh place in the latter race was the only accomplishment.

Ferrari 553 painting

A really superb Italian Grand Prix took place at Monza on September 5, no less than six drivers contesting the lead throughout the race. Among these was Gonzalez in a Squalo, but his bid came to an end on the seventeenth lap with gearbox troubles. Ferrari could have been forgiven for abandoning the Squalo at this point as hopeless. but a full six weeks of work between Monza and the Spanish Grand Prix at Barcelona on October 24 produced a much improved version with numerous detail changes, the most important being the substitution of coil springs in front for the transverse leaf spring. In this form, the Squalo achieved excellent times at Monza, and the one car entered in Spain (illustrated in our five view drawing) carried off a solid victory with Hawthorn at the wheel. From this we can conclude that the Squalo had been suffering most from lack of sufficient development time, due to other Ferrari projects.

Nevertheless, the 1955 season proved even more disappointing for the design. A revised version known as the 555 Supersqualo was tested at Modena early in the year. This car had a new body with a broader, flatter nose, less subtle side tank contours, an upswept scuttle, and a high bobbed tail. Altogether the appearance was quite impressive in a brutish sort of way. Performances were no better, however; one car was tried by Farina for the Turin race on March 27, but not run, while Farina and Trintignant drove two cars at Bordeaux on April 24, both retiring from the race with gearbox and brake troubles. By the time of the first championship race at Monte Carlo on May 22, the cars were performing so poorly on the twisty circuit that they were relegated to the third and fourth Ferrari drivers Harry Schell and Piero Taruffi. The former retired early in the race while Taruffi handed his car over to Paul Frere briefly during a slow run at the back of the field.

Things were very much better at Spa on June 5. The cars had always been happier on high speed circuits, and in what proved to be his last race (and one of his best). Farina drove to a good third place behind the Mercedes of Fangio and Moss. In fourth and seventh places came the other two Supersqualos of Frere and Trintignant, so the cars had for once shown themselves to be both reasonably fast and extremely reliable. At Spa the cars appeared with slimmer, tapered nose cowlings and small air entries.

Due to the Le Mans accident of 1955 and the subsequent cancellation of several races, the Supersqualos were run in only two more events that year. In the Dutch Grand Prix at Zandvoort on June 19, three entries were made, again sporting the tapered noses. This time both Mercedes and Maserati got the best of them, new Ferrari driver Eugenio Castellotti finishing fifth and Hawthorn (now back in the team after a spell with Vanwall) seventh. Trintignant retired with a broken gearbox.

Four Supersqualos ran at Monza on September 11. Now with wide nose cowlings and longer tail sections, the cars placed third, sixth, and eighth in the hands of Castellotti, Maglioli, and Trintignant, while Hawthorn retired with a broken gearbox mounting. Castellotti's performance was stirring but as a design the cars were on the way out after two years of ups and downs. At the beginning of 1956 one last entry was made for the new team member Peter Collins in the Argentine Grand Prix on January 22; he retired after a cautious drive. Another new Ferrari driver, Olivier Gendebien, was given even more of a handful in the form of a Supersqualo powered by a Lancia V8 engine. In this brute he managed to finish fifth. At Mendoza on February 5 the two drivers finished fifth and sixth, respectively, in the same machines. Thus ended the career of the Squalos with Scuderia Ferrari. Two cars fitted with 860 Monza sports engines later went to Australia for drivers Reg Parnell and Peter Whitehead; these were eventually sold to private owners and disappeared from the international racing scene.

SPECIFICATIONS: (Early 1954) Engine 100 x 78mm, 2488cc, 260 b.h.p. at 7200 rpm., four-cylinder, dual overhead cam. Transmission, four-speed and reverse in unit differential. Front suspension, double wishbones and transverse leaf spring, with rubber block between lower wishbone and frame bracket. Rear suspension, De Dion with transverse leaf spring, tube in front of differential assembly.

DIMENSIONS: Wheelbase 84 inches. Front track 49 inches. Rear track 47.5 inches. Length 146 inches. Height 40.2 inches. Body width 48.7 inches. In late 1954 coil springs replaced the transverse leaf in front. In 1955 a revised ladder-type frame with partial "space-frame" sections was used. Final engine output was 265 bhp. at 7000 r.p.m.

Prominent Car Numbers (White unless otherwise mentioned) Silverstone 1954: Gonzalez 21 (black on white disc) Spa. 1954: Farina 4, Gonzalez 6 Reims, 1954: Gonzalez 2 (yellow nose band). Hawthorn 6 (green nose band) (black on white disc except left side of tail) Monza. 1954: Gonzalez 32 Barcelona, 1954: Hawthorn 38 Spa, 1955: Farina 2, Trintignant 4, Frere 6 Zandroort, 1955: Hawthorn 2, Trintignant 4, Castellotti 6 Monza, 1955: Castellotti 4, Hawthorn 6, Trintignant 8, Maglioli 12 Buenos Aires, 1956: Collins 36, Gendebien 38

Model Maker

Ferrari Dino 246

Ferrari Dino 246 plan drawings

Prototype Parade No. 85 | Model Maker July 1958 | Described by the Editor

Ferrari Dino 246

FUTURE historians of motor racing will undoubtedly record the year 1958 as notable for the introduction of ever smaller, lighter machines, marking the final demise of the multi-cylindered engines characterised by such as the V16 B.R.M. and the later V12 Ferraris. This month's Prototype Parade car is Enzo Ferrari's answer to the challenge of the Cooper Climax, which he must have anticipated when he produced a 1½ litre V6 for the Naples G.P. in April, 1957.

With third driver Musso at the wheel it put up fastest practice time and finished third in the event proper. Thus encouraged he pressed on with the completely new design of V6-powered car, which after a trial gallop in the Modena G.P. made its serious debut at Casablanca in the autumn of 1957, though robbed by ill fortune of success.

This was the car, shortly to be designated the Type Dino 246 (named after the designer's son), that enabled Mike Hawthorn to break a long spell of bad luck in G.P. events with a convincing victory at the Goodwood Easter meeting. On its running on that occasion it must be regarded as a worthy challenger to the astonishing Vanwalls, the ill starred B.R.M.s and the cheeky Rob Walker Cooper. Recent events have not quite borne out its early promise, but it must be remembered that this is its first full season of racing, against considerably longer development by its principal rivals. One point in favour of the speedy maturity of the Dino is that from the outset it was designed for straight petrol, and has not therefore had to make any radical changes such as have been necessary with other marques accustomed to more potent fuels as permitted in previous years.

In appearance the Dino bears unmistakable evidence of its design, with characteristic body lines, long nose and stumpy tail that are the hallmark of Ferrari. External features of special interest include the peculiar perspex bulge which houses the down draught Weber carburettors, protruding through the bonnet. Originally, these were covered by a metal bonnet top bulge, but drivers complained that it obscured their vision and the change to clear plastic was accordingly made. It cannot be a particularly ideal arrangement for we do not quite see how the intakes get their proper meed of air. Then the "double windscreen" will be noted, a conventional wrapround type, with, set behind it, a folding aero-screen, which remains in place at all times. When racing in countries such as South America, where heat fatigue of drivers becomes nearly as important an aspect of racing as mechanical efficiency, the wrapround screen is removed, leaving the aero-screen alone, with a much cooler driver. Finally, the exhaust pipes are finished megaphone style, reminiscent of racing motor-cycle practice.

Ferrari Dino 246 cutaway drawing

In layout the car is exactly symmetrical, with identical exhaust systems on each side, serving three cylinders each; the perspex bulge is right in the middle, as are petrol and oil orifices. The original extremely long nose used up to Casablanca is now replaced with a version of more moderate length. Three lug hub caps take the place of the two lug type first fitted; rectangular rear view mirrors are substituted for the earlier round pattern; typical Ferrari grit guards have been added behind front wheels; and turbo finned front brake covers are now installed.

Front suspension is of wishbone type with ball jointed end and 3 in. outside diameter coil springs, containing the usual Ferrari "snubber" for extra damping effect. Rear suspension is transverse leaf spring, with anti-roll adaptations. Front brakes stand proud of the wheel rims to a thickness of 2 in., those at the rear, of lesser thickness, fit snugly within the wheel rims. Tyres, on 16-in. wheels, are 5.50 front and 6.50 rear, the well tried firm of Englebert being suppliers. Modellers should note that the name is picked out in white, and small arrows indicate the correct way the tyre should be fitted. (We noticed one was wrong way round at Goodwood, but it had no apparent ill effect!)

The usual racing steering wheel of alloy, with wood rims added, sits steeply angled before a simple dashboard layout, with gear lever on the right. Car shown was tailored for Mike Hawthorn, so that slim Italian mechanic required wedging with cushions during the warm up! Colour is Italian racing red, which is almost pillar box, with the addition of a slight dash of blue. Racing numbers are black on a white roundel; Scuderia Ferrari emblems on each side are black horse on a white shield; the small Ferrari horse badge on the front bonnet is in black on a yellow enamel rectangle. The horse also appears as the centre motif of the steering wheel. The two rods protruding at the rear are jacking points. Quick release petrol cap is obvious, oval filler behind it is to oil tank for engine and transmission; similar oval filler on bonnet gives access to radiator.

Once again, we would remind readers that our plan is of a specific car that raced at Goodwood; minor differences may well be noted on other team cars during the season, and even on this machine.

As we go to Press, news of Mike Hawthorn's fantastic last lap in the European G.P. at Spa makes exciting reading. In a final effort to catch Tony Brooks' winning Vanwall, the Ferrari was urged to an all time lap record speed of over 132 m.p.h., finishing in a cloud of steam and smoke, and virtually coasting over the line for second place.

Model Maker

Ferrari 250GT Berlinetta

Ferrari 250GT Berlinetta plan drawings

Prototype Parade No. 107 | Model Maker April 1961 | Drawn & Described by R. C. Jackson

Ferrari 250 G.T. Berlinetta Competition Coupe

THE World Championship for cars of the Gran Turismo category was won in 1960 by Ferrari, whose cars have had an unchallenged grip on this class since its inception some years ago. The most popular version for racing purposes of the Ferrari 250 G.T. has been the Berlinetta. It strongly reflects the works coupes which ran at Le Mans in the early 1950's.

At the heart of all 250 G.T.'s is the fantastic V-12 engine of 2,953 cc capacity, which in racing versions gives 280 b.h.p. gross at 7,000 r.p.m. It combines flexibility and docility with sheer power, since it was also the basis of the winners of the World Sports Car Championships of 1958 and 1960.

Perhaps with visions of the Targa Florio in mind, the chassis is built as a steel tubular structure of the "try to break me" description, and provides a stern reminder to the purists of chassis design that not all motor races take place on billiard table surfaces.

The road holding department is again catered for simply, reliably and effectively, by wishbone and coil spring front suspension combined with a rigid rear axle suspended on leaf springs and positively located by twin radius arms. Centre locking Borrani wire wheels, of chrome plated light alloy, carry 6.00 x 16 inch tyres, generally of the Dunlop racing type; the combination being brought to a halt by 12 in. Dunlop disc brakes.

The sleek yet compact body shape is executed in either aluminium or steel by Scaglietti, and has evolved from a Pinin Farina prototype which finished fourth at Le Mans in 1959, driven by Arents and Pillette.

The waspish appearance of the car suggests vast acceleration as from a catapult. This is achieved by the sloping rear roof line, known in America as a "fast back."

There has been a growing movement in favour of Gran Turismo races, because of dissatisfaction with the spirit of Sports car competition which has allowed cars of a prototype nature to take part. Such a car, the Camoradi Maserati Tipo 61 which appeared at Le Mans in 1960, proved this point. Consequently, the R.A.C. decided to hold its Tourist Trophy Race at Goodwood, for G.T. cars in 1960.

This brought about the parnership of Stirling Moss and Ferrari, only once achieved before in a race, being the ill fated Cuban Sports Car Grand Prix of 1958 which he won in four laps! (The race was stopped by the ungentlemanly activities of Castroist insurgents). Stirling won the race at a canter with the added entertainment, it is said, of the car radio. Hard driven Astons just could not match this winning combination, despite the gallant attempts of Messrs. Salvadori and Ireland. The car appeared, as drawn, in the smart Rob Walker colours of dark blue with a white nose stripe. Rare among Berlinettas, this car was of the right hand drive type, so that any model finished in Italian red, Belgian yellow or French blue should, almost invariably, be left hand drive.

As the plan shows, the car was raced with screen wipers parked diagonally. Perhaps Stirling was expecting rain. However, other Berlinettas, as raced, seem rarely to have them fully parked.

As a model for electric racing, rail or slot, the Berlinetta appears quite suitable, providing adequate "engine room" space, even for twin motor jobs. Gran Turismo races are being considered for future rail meetings too, I believe. Best be prepared! For Le Mans racing, lighting should not prove difficult, following the methods employed by Laurie Cranshaw for his Aston Martin DB4 (January, 1960, MODEL MAKER).

My first attempt at this car was not too successful, being built in far too great a hurry for the 1960 Southport meeting; it now resides, I believe, at the Whitehaven club's slot track, as a monument to over enthusiastic "dicing". The robustness of the entries of the "knowledgeable old hands" (I nearly said "lags!") at Southport quickly impressed itself on me, and whereas strength factors had always previously been at a minimum in my models, all subsequent thicknesses of brass and glass fibre were trebled. Despite the rough and tumble of competition, I think a thick pressing of acetate sheet is satisfactory for the roof, and should stand up to moderate impact without support (which can always be added as a safety precaution anyway). The "hard-top" can be bonded to the lower body mould and filed flush, using an impact adhesive or glass fibre resin. I have found a glass fibre roof is possible but difficult to make graceful.

Remember, too, that a modified or pre-homologation G.T. Ferraris have appeared in pure Sports car competitions, so you will have a dual purpose racer in your stable. For decorative purposes, bumpers, grille, headlight surrounds and tail pipes can be chromed, the projection of the last mentioned being good insurance against persistent "nobbling" in slot events. Humbrol dark blue is perfect for Rob Walker colours, though no doubt there are suitable cellulose paints.

For those who like variations on a theme here are details of several other Berlinettas which have appeared in competition:

European Hill-Climb Championships

A regular class winner in this series in 1960 was the Berlinetta of Nando Pagliarini, registration number 48590-PR, which appeared in red with white number circles on the flanks only.

Sebring 12-hour race, 1960

Finishing fourth in this tough race was the blood red MT of Ed Hugus and Augie Pabst. It was numbered 10 and was a 1959 version, with a slightly longer wheelbase, one feature being a clear plastic "bug deflector" on the left-hand side of the bonnet half way down, another the lack of hot air exits on the flanks.

A similar car piloted by Bill Sturgis and Fritz D'Orey was numbered 12 and finished sixth.

Nurburgring 1,000 Kilometres Race, 1960

Hugus and Pabst drove a short wheelbase car in this race numbered 19.

Montlhery 1,000 Kilometres Race, 1960

Belgians Olivier Gendebien and Lucien Bianchi won this race in a Berlinetta ahead of a stream of similar cars. Their car was numbered 3 and had a tri colour stripe running from nose to tail about the width of the bonnet air scoop and coloured green, white and red from right to left. The basic colour was, of course, yellow.

Tour de France, 1960

Strictly not a race, this "rally" developed into its usual "blind" and was won, officially and unofficially, by Ferrari team driver Willy Mairesse, with a red Berlinetta, bedecked with a double row of black and white dicing above the grille, which became severely disturbed by frequent head-on contact with assorted French countryside.

Le Mans 24-hour Race

The prototype Berlinetta which finished fourth at Le Mans behind the Aston Martins in 1959 was numbered 18 and coloured Belgian yellow, again with a "bug deflector" but no air scoop on the bonnet. Swiss drivers Tavano and Loustel placed fourth in 1960 with a blue Berlinetta No. 16. Arents and Connell were fifth in number 18, both with "bug deflectors".

Dimensions of the Ferrari 250 G.T. Berlinetta Competition Coupe, to give the car its full title, are as follows: Wheelbase 7 ft. 10½ in.; track (front) 4 ft. 4¼ in.; rear 4 ft. 5 in.; overall length 13ft. 8 in.; overall width 5 ft. 6 in.; overall height 4 ft. 2 in.; and ground clearance 5¾ in.

As a model this prototype should arouse attention if its looks can be successfully captured, and could be decorative as a mantelpiece decoration. Nobody can deny that the Berlinetta is a Champion in 1/1 scale, may it become one in 1/32nd and 1/24th scale, too.

Model Maker

Ferrari 156

Ferrari 156 plan drawings

Prototype Parade No. 111 | Model Maker September 1961 | Drawn & Described by Etienne Becker

Ferrari 156

THE racing car world was expecting something radical from "maison Ferrari" following their —almost— eclipse during 1959 and 1960. In these years the remarkable Cooper and Lotus vehicles established a supremacy which was only once challenged, and then by a Vanwall. It is well known that audacious techniques and painstaking research behind the scenes enabled these cars to be so successful in the 2½ litre class in 1959 and 1960; the last successful 2½ L Ferrari was, in fact, the "Dino" of 1958 which carried Mike Hawthorn to world championship in that year.

In the writers' opinion, the car drawn here is the future 1961 World Champion. In effect, though Lotus (plus Moss!) may have won at Monaco, a week later at Zandvort, Ferrari really showed the way home, the principal reason being that the Ferrari motor is considerably more powerful than the 1½ L Coventry Climaxes. My prediction could be upset if Coventry or Porsche produce a new motor before the end of the season- I hope so for the sake of our English friends and of Porsche, who has never won an epreuve in F1; of course, Ferdinand Porsche was concerned with the Auto Union, but that is another thing.

Ferrari 156 cutaway drawing

Ferrari, then, has abandoned the Dino and its variants of 1959 and 60 in favour of a rear engined car. The one drawn here is the model carrying the number 36, driven by Ritchie Ginther in the last Monaco Grand Prix on May 14th this year. This car, the latest, differed from the other two (numbered 38 and 40, driven by Von Trips and Phil Hill) by having a 6 cylinder motor in a 120 degree V, against the 65 degrees of the others. Note also the Monaco type windscreen, the normal fitting for fast circuits being shown dotted. On the twisty Monaco course the driver needs every comfort. Another difference occurs in the carburettor air intakes, one only on the 65 degree but two on the 120 degree version.

Ferrari 156 side view painting

It is notable that this is the first time that Ferrari have studied their bodywork in a scientific manner; several mock-ups of possible sheaths were made, resulting in the new Fl, a superb shape beautifully profiled and of great appeal to modellers; the nose and tail plus the two long exhausts extending rearwards give the car great individuality.

The front wheels are independently suspended by means of coil springs in transverse parallelograms, and a similar layout is used at the rear. The motor is mounted on the centre line, well back, with the hydraulic clutch and gearbox behind. Dunlop disc brakes are fitted to all wheels. Cylinder bore and stroke is 73 mm. and 58.8 mm., giving 1,476 c.c.; compression ratio 9.8, output 190 h.p. at 9,500 r.p.m. Laying the motor out at 120 degrees makes exhausting simple compared with the problems likely to arise from a completely flat arrangement.

Ferrari 156 cutaway drawing

Colours are body — bright red, wheels — aluminium, upholstery—blue, fore edge of cockpit behind windshield — matt black, insignia — yellow shield with green and red outline and black horse.

In accordance with the new regulations, the car carries a battery and starter motor, the latter mounted on the clutch housing.

Principal dimensions are length 4060mm. (13 ft. 4 in.) width 860mm. (2 ft. 10 in.) height to top of crash hoop behind driver 1000mm. (3 ft. 39 in.), to top of carburetter air intakes 720mm. (2 ft. 4½ in.—highest part of body-work excluding windshield), weight approx. 420 Kg. (926 lbs.) Tyres are 5.00 x 15 front and 6.00 x 15 rear.

Model Cars

Ferrari 330 P3

Ferrari 330 P3 plan drawings

Prototype Parade No. 228 | Model Cars November 1966 | Drawn & Described by C. Bower

Ferrari 330 P3

1966 WILL GO DOWN in the record books as the year in which Ford of America put an end to Ferrari's outstanding run of success at Le Mans. However Ferrari did not go down without a fight, and the car with which he contested the race was, by anybody's reckoning, a formidable challenger. The 330P3 represents a considerable advance on its predecessor the P2, and is in fact a completely new design.

Enzo Ferrari decided that, despite the opposition's 7 litre engines, he would stick at 4 litres, reasoning that the extra speed would be offset by the greater weight and the resultant handling and braking problems.

A new 3967 cc. V12 four camshaft engine was developed, making extensive use of light alloys. Although the output of 420 b.h.p. at 8,000 r.p.m. is no greater than that of the 330P2, weight is reduced by 65 lbs. Lucas fuel injection and Marelli coil ignition are fitted, and a top speed of 192 m.p.h. is claimed.

One of the most impressive aspects of the car is the chassis, basically a multi-tubular frame on to which stressed alloy panels are rivetted. A glassfibre underpan is moulded to the frame, extending up the sides to form fuel tanks.

Ferrari 330-P3 cutaway drawing

A very low and aerodynamically advanced body has been designed by Piero Drogo, who was responsible for the "breadvan" Ferrari. The original open body was virtually a coupe with a two foot square piece of roof missing, so no-one was surprised when a closed version appeared. Apart from the "lid" and the rear window, shown on the plan, there is no difference. The lower body has not resulted in a smaller frontal area, owing to the increased width caused by the use of very wide section tyres. Water cooling is by means of a series of gilled tubes in the nose, in place of the usual radiator. The large door intakes provide cool air for the brakes and the fuel injectors. The central lip intake in the nose ventilates the cockpit, while those on either side cool the front brakes.

Suspension is independent all round by A arms and coil spring/shock absorbers; Girling disc brakes are fitted, outboard at the front and inboard at the rear. The Ferrari 5 speed gearbox is in unit with the differential.

The 15 in. cast alloy wheels, deeply dished at the rear, are shown on the plan with and without the knock-off hubs. At 1584 lbs., the 330P3 is some 220 lbs. lighter than its predecessor.

The plan depicts the car entered at Sebring, driven by Mike Parkes and Bob Bondurant. The stencil on the rear, "PROVA MO-36", is in white. Needless to say all cars are finished in Ferrari red. The rear part of the engine hump is transparent. The upper part of the side windows on the coupe are shaded to prevent glare. Scrap views show the wing mirrors, of a new design, and the air outlet in front of the screen.

But for an un-Ferrari like frailty, the P3 could well have pulled it off at Le Mans, where it was certainly fast enough. It would be unwise to write off Enzo Ferrari at this stage.

Wheelbase 7 ft. 10½ in.
Track, front 4 ft. 9½ in.
Track, rear 4 ft. 8¼ in.
Overall length 13 ft. 8 in.
Overall width 5 ft. 10 in.
Overall height 3 ft. 1½ in.
Tyres front 5.50-15
Tyres rear 7.00-15

Model Cars

Ferrari 612

Ferrari 612 plan drawings

Prototype Parade No. 294 | Model Cars March 1969 | Drawn by Roger Taylor & Described by John Wood

Ferrari 612

T HE Ferrari challenge in the 1968 Can-Am series arrived, as seems to be usual with new Ferrari projects, too late, to make any impact on the scene. As it was, the performance of Ferrari's group seven projectile didn't exactly set the American continent on fire, but its looks certainly created a small storm.

The Ferrari 612, for thus is the beast named, appeared only for the last Can-Am round at Las Vegas, it posted ninth fastest practice time, but was eliminated by a first lap pile up, before its driver Chris Amon could show the car's potential in the race.

When the 612 was wheeled out of its trailer at Las Vegas most of the people watching became instant Ferrari fans. So striking is the body design that it converted quite a few Americans to the cult of Ferrarimania'. A great deal of research was necessary to achieve the body shape of the `612' which is, so Ferrari says, as near as dammit aerodynamically perfect. The body is very low (33in. at its highest point) and sleek, and is slightly reminiscent of the Ferrari P5 show car and the McLaren M8A, especially in its slight wedge shape. Dominating the car visually is the airfoil which is mounted onto the chassis just behind the cockpit. Following Ferrari formula one practise this is adjustable by hydraulic pressure generated by the engine, the driver having a button on the steering wheel which controls the airfoil's angle. A separate hydraulic system is used to bring into action the three 'braking flaps' mounted on the car, one on the nose and two on the air-foil. These flaps rise automatically when the brakes are applied and they remind one of the similar system used on the 1955 Mercedes sports racing cars.

Ferrari 612 Can Am cutaway drawing

The very advanced body, alas, clothes nothing more exciting than ,a tubular steel space frame chassis, which is considerably stiffened in the cockpit area by aluminium sheeting riveted to the chassis. The suspension of the car is also completely conventional. The usual upper and lower wishbones and a coil spring damper unit are used at the front, and a reversed lower wishbone, top link, twin radius arms and a Koni damper unit are employed on each side at the rear, connected by an anti-roll bar. Out-board mounted girling disc brakes are used on all four wheels.

Nestling in the chassis behind the driver is the largest engine yet built by Ferrari: a 6,222 c.c. V12. At the time of the Las Vegas race this 'mill' was giving 620 b.h.p., but Chris Amon says that the engine is not yet anything like fully developed and when it is, at least 700 b.h.p. should propel the car. Coupled with this abundance of power the engine possesses a high torque output. Because the power and torque are both spread over a wide range of engine revs, only a four speed gearbox is needed by the car. This helps to make the driver's job so much easier. The 612's engine was the only pure racing engine to appear in last year's Can Am series, all other engines being based on American production blocks. The bore and stroke of the 612's cylinders is 92 x 78 mm, making each cylinder roughly the size of a Fiat 500's engine. Four valves are used by each of these cylinders and they are fed Shell fuel by Lucas Fuel injection.

Fifteen inch, Campagnolo cast magnesium five spoke wheels are used. These are painted gold, as is the custom with Ferraris. The body is, of course, painted blood red, and it carries the number 23 in white squares on its nose and on both flanks. The two intakes in between the front wings direct air into twin oil coolers which are mounted just behind the car's doors, while mounted in the rear wings are the twin air outlets from these coolers. The cockpit design is very reminiscent of the Ferrari grand prix cars, the only 'windscreen' being mounted on the extreme front of the raised portion of the wrap-around cockpit sides. The body of the 612 is made from aluminium which is much heavier than the glass fibre favoured by the majority of the group seven constructors.

It can be appreciated that the 612 is a very complex piece of machinery. I would suggest that a special prize of a formula one Ferrari be offered to the first person to build a 1/32nd scale replica with all working parts, subject of course to this model complying with ECRA standards and to it winning the 1969 national championships. When the car appeared at Las Vegas it weighed about 2001b. more than a McLaren M8A, most of this extra weight being the aluminium body. However the car is being lightened considerably in time for this year's Can Am, which begins in June, and should therefore be very competitive. As the Ferrari factory is re-entering group six racing this year, one of the American Ferrari distributors, (probably Bill Harrah) will be entering the Can-Am cars, Ferrari, therefore, stands a chance of winning the formula one and two, group six and Can-Am championships this year. If, and it is a big if, he achieves these honours, I think it could be said that Enzo Ferrari had at last reached his Nirvana.

Ferrari 612 — Vital Statistics. Wheelbase: 96½ in. Track: front : 63½ in. rear: 63 in.